09/17/14

USS Olympia

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USS Olympia (C-6/CA-15/CL-15/IX-40) is a protected cruiser that saw service in the United States Navy from her commissioning in 1895 until 1922. This vessel became famous as the flagship of Commodore George Dewey at the Battle of Manila Bay during the Spanish-American War in 1898. The ship was decommissioned after returning to the U.S. in 1899, but was returned to active service in 1902.

She served until World War I as a training ship for naval cadets and as a floating barracks in Charleston, South Carolina. In 1917, she was mobilized again for war service, patrolling the American coast and escorting transport ships.

After World War I, Olympia participated in the 1919 Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War and conducted cruises in the Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas to promote peace in the unstable Balkan countries. In 1921, the ship carried the remains of World War I’s Unknown Soldier from France to Washington, D.C., where his body was interred in Arlington National Cemetery. Olympia was decommissioned for the last time in December 1922 and placed in reserve.

The newly formed Board on the Design of Ships began the design process for Cruiser Number 6 in 1889. For main armament, the board chose 8 inches (200 mm) guns, though the number and arrangement of these weapons, as well as the armor scheme, was heavily debated. On 8 April 1890, the navy solicited bids but found only one bidder, the Union Iron Works in San Francisco, California. The contract specified a cost of $1,796,000, completion by 1 April 1893, and offered a bonus for early completion.

During the contract negotiations, Union Iron Works was granted permission to lengthen the vessel by 10 ft (3.0 m), at no extra cost, to accommodate the propulsion system. The contract was signed on 10 July 1890, the keel laid on 17 June 1891, and the ship was launched on 5 November 1892. However, delays in the delivery of components including the new Harvey steel armor, slowed completion. The last 1-pounder gun wasn’t delivered until December 1894.

Union Iron Works conducted the first round of trials on 3 November 1893; on a 68 nmi (126 km; 78 mi) run, the ship achieved a speed of 21.26 kn (39.37 km/h; 24.47 mph). Upon return to harbor, however, it was discovered that the keel had been fouled by sea grass, which required dry-docking to fix.

By 11 December, the work had been completed and she was dispatched from San Francisco to Santa Barbara for an official speed trial. Once in the harbor, heavy fog delayed the ship for four days. On the 15th, Olympia sailed into the Santa Barbara Channel, the “chosen race-track for California-built cruisers,” and began a four-hour time trial. According to the navy, she had sustained an average speed of 21.67 kn (40.13 km/h; 24.94 mph), though she reached up to 22.2 kn (41.1 km/h; 25.5 mph)—both well above the contract requirement of 20 kn (37 km/h; 23 mph). While returning to San Francisco, Olympia participated in eight experiments that tested various combinations of steering a ship by rudder and propellers. The new cruiser was ultimately commissioned on 5 February 1895. For several months afterwards, she was the largest ship ever built on the western coast of the US, until surpassed by the battleship Oregon.

Scientific American compared Olympia to the similar British Eclipse-class cruisers and the Chilean Blanco Encalada and found that the American ship held a “great superiority” over the British ships. While the Eclipse’s had 550 short tons (500 t) of coal, compared to Olympia’s 400 short tons (360 t), the latter had nearly double the horsepower (making the ship faster), more armor, and a heavier armament on a displacement that was only 200 short tons (180 t) greater than the other.

Upon commissioning in February 1895 Olympia departed the Union Iron Works yard in San Francisco and steamed inland to the U.S. Navy’s Mare Island Naval Shipyard at Vallejo, where outfitting was completed and Captain John J. Read was placed in command. In April, the ship steamed south to Santa Barbara to participate in a festival. The ship’s crew also conducted landing drills in Sausalito and Santa Cruz that month. On 20 April, the ship conducted its first gunnery practice, during which one of the ship’s gunners, Coxswain John Johnson, was killed in an accident with one of the 5-inch guns. The ship’s last shakedown cruise took place on 27 July. After returning to Mare Island, the ship was assigned to replace Baltimore as the flagship of the Asiatic Squadron.

On 25 August, the ship departed the United States for Chinese waters. A week later, the ship arrived in Hawaii, where she remained until 23 October due to an outbreak of cholera. The ship then sailed for Yokohama, Japan, where she arrived on 9 November. On 15 November, Baltimore arrived in Yokohama from Shanghai, China, to transfer command of the Asiatic Squadron to Olympia. Baltimore departed on 3 December; Rear Admiral F.V. McNair arrived fifteen days later to take command of the squadron. The following two years were filled with training exercises with the other members of the Asiatic Squadron, and goodwill visits to various ports in Asia. On 3 January 1898, Commodore George Dewey raised his flag on Olympia and assumed command of the squadron.

As tensions increased and war with Spain became more probable, Olympia remained at Hong Kong and was prepared for action. When war was declared on 25 April 1898, Dewey moved his ships to Mirs Bay, China. Two days later, the Navy Department ordered the Squadron to Manila in the Philippines, where a significant Spanish naval force protected the harbor. Dewey was ordered to sink or capture the Spanish warships, opening the way for a subsequent conquest by US forces.

On the morning of 1 May 1898, Commodore Dewey—with his flag aboard Olympia—steamed his ships into Manila Bay to confront the Spanish flotilla commanded by Rear Admiral Patricio Montojo y Pasarón. The Spanish ships were anchored close to shore, under the protection of coastal artillery, but both the ships and shore batteries were outdated. At approximately 05:40, Dewey instructed Olympia’s captain, “You may fire when you are ready, Gridley”. Gridley ordered the forward 8-inch gun turret, commanded by Gunners Mate Adolph Nilsson, to open fire, which opened the battle and prompted the other American warships to begin firing.

Though shooting was poor from both sides, the Spanish gunners were even less prepared than the Americans. As a result, the battle quickly became one-sided. After initial success, Dewey briefly broke off the engagement at around 07:30 when his flagship was reported to be low on 5-inch ammunition. This turned out to be an erroneous report—the 5-inch magazines were still mostly full. He ordered the battle resumed shortly after 11:15. By early afternoon, Dewey had completed the destruction of Montojo’s squadron and the shore batteries, while his own ships were largely undamaged. Dewey anchored his ships off Manila and accepted the surrender of the city.

Word of Dewey’s victory quickly reached the US; both he and Olympia became famous as the first victors of the war. An expeditionary force was assembled and sent to complete the conquest of the Philippines. Olympia remained in the area and supported the Army by shelling Spanish forces on land. She returned to the Chinese coast on 20 May 1899. She remained there until the following month, when she departed for the US, via the Suez Canal and the Mediterranean Sea. The ship arrived in Boston on 10 October. Following Olympia’s return to the US, her officers and crew were feted and she was herself repainted and adorned with a gilded bow ornament. On 9 November, Olympia was decommissioned and placed in reserve.

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09/17/14

ALBIGENSIAN CRUSADE – THE CRUSADERS PART II

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Although Simon de Montfort had slighted the fortifications of Toulouse in 1216, the city still managed to hold out against his forces from October 1217 to the beginning of July l2l8. The inhabitants of Toulouse rallied behind their returned count, Raymond VI, and rebuilt the fortifications as best as they could, supplementing them with ditches and palisades to prevent the crusaders getting near the walls. When his direct assaults failed, Simon de Montfort ordered the construction of ‘cats’ (mobile shelters, shown here) to protect his troops so that they could get close to the walls to undermine the defences. It was whilst he was trying to protect one of these shelters from a sortie by the defenders of Toulouse that Montfort was killed on 25 June 1217. Simon is shown being hit in the head by a stone thrown by a mangonel (in the bottom left); his brother Guy has already been shot from his horse by a crossbowman and lies on the ground to Simon’s right.

Toulouse, in southern France, was another great city which demonstrated its resilience in the face of a determined attack. It defied the army of the Albigensian Crusade in 1211: Simon de Montfort was unable to surround the city, whose walls were three miles round, and he could not depend on reinforcements. But, decisively, the crusaders were starving outside the city while Toulouse was able to buy food through its other gates, so after two weeks the siege was raised. The crusader army went on to attack Moissac, but even this small walled town defied them for a month, and in the end fell because of dissension between the garrison of knights and German mercenaries and the citizens.

Through changing political conditions, the walls of Toulouse were almost destroyed in 1215-16, but in September 1217 Count Raymond of Toulouse regained the city and once again de Montfort and his crusading army laid siege in October 1217. The citizens were united in their defiance of the crusader army and they organized themselves efficiently – men, women and even children. They improvised fortifications with earthworks and timber, and, where these did not exist, poured down stones and other missiles from the roofs upon the attacking French, making the narrow streets impassable. The citadel, the Chateau de Narbonne, was held by the French, but it was completely cut off from the city. Once the fury of their first attacks was spent, the French settled down for a long siege. Focaud of Berzy advised Simon: “We must work out how to maintain a long siege so as to destroy the town. Every day we must make raids across the whole country so as to deprive them of corn, grain, of trees too and vines, of salt, timber and other provisions. In this way we shall force them to surrender.” By January 1218, reinforcements from France were starting to arrive, and more poured in in May and June, but although savage assaults were mounted from both sides of the city, supported by elaborate siege equipment, it was never wholly closed off, and this enabled the citizens to receive reinforcements. When Simon de Montfort was killed by a stone from a mangonel on 26 June 1217, the siege was abandoned. The city was besieged for a third time in 1228, but ultimately it surrendered to the overwhelming power of the French monarchy.

The crusade attracted a large number of men of good family and prestigious connections. Among them were Odo, duke of Burgundy; Hervé, count of Nevers; Peter of Courtenay, count of Auxerre; and William of Roches, seneschal of Anjou; as well as many of slightly lesser rank such as Guy of Lévis; Gaucher of Joigny, lord of Beaujeu; and of course Simon of Montfort. Many senior churchmen, especially from Burgundy, also took part, among them the archbishop of Sens and the bishops of Autun, Nevers, and Clermont as well as members of monastic orders. The bulk of the army seems to have been recruited from Burgundy and other eastern parts of France, but there were contingents from the Saintonge, Poitou, and Gascony as well as Germany. Partly this may be explained as a result of the bias toward the East among the aristocratic recruits, who brought many followers with them; but the high density of Cistercian houses in that region had also resulted in more intensive preaching of the crusade.

The crusaders assembled at Lyons in June 1209 under the leadership of Arnold Amalric, and the very large force moved down the Rhone Valley and into the lands of Raymond VI. He offered himself to the church as a penitent and on 18 June 1209 was reconciled in a humiliating ceremony at Saint- Gilles. His lands were thus made safe from attack, and the crusaders turned their attentions to the lands of Raymond- Roger Trencavel, viscount of Béziers and Carcassonne. The first town to be assaulted was Béziers, which was sacked and the population massacred. This was the occasion on which a crusader, having asked Arnold Amalric how they should tell the Catholics from the heretics, was told, “Kill them all, God will know his own” [Caesarius Heiserbacensis monachi ordinis Cisterciensis, Dialogus miraculorum, 2:296-298]. The story is probably apocryphal. Nevertheless, the crusaders reported that they had slaughtered 20,000 people, and although this, too, is almost certainly a gross exaggeration, it is a sign of their intentions.

The army moved on to Carcassonne, to which the viscount and his court had fled and which was in a state of defense. The crusaders began their attack on 1 August, and on 15 August the town surrendered after the viscount had been seized while discussing terms under a safe conduct. He later died in prison. The townspeople were turned out, and the place became the headquarters of the crusaders, who elected Simon of Montfort as their leader and as viscount of Béziers and Carcassonne. Simon of Montfort immediately received the surrender of other towns in the lands of the viscount and began to burn heretics where he could find them. During the winter of 1209-1210 he saw his position weaken as his crusaders returned home, but the following spring he regained lost ground as fresh crusaders arrived. He set out to reduce the great fortresses of Minerve, Termes, and Cabaret, which controlled the surrounding countryside. The fall of Minerve was followed by the burning alive of about 140 Cathar perfecti, both men and women, a pattern that was to be followed as other towns fell. Lavaur, a town quite close to Toulouse and part of the possessions of the viscount of Carcassonne, was stormed. The lord and his knights who had defended the town were hanged, and the lady Geralda, his sister, was thrown down a well and killed when stones were hurled down on top of her. Their deaths were followed by the burning of 400 heretics.

The next phase of the crusade extended the attack to the lands of Raymond VI of Toulouse, who was pressed to meet humiliating conditions and excommunicated when he refused. During the summers of 1211 and 1212 Simon of Montfort’s forces campaigned across the whole of Languedoc. By the end of the 1212 season much of the countryside, as far to the west as the Agenais and south as far as Foix, was in his hands, although the major towns, Toulouse included, held out against him. At first Simon accepted the submission of southern noblemen and regranted towns and castles to them. When it became apparent that these men would throw off their allegiance as soon as they could, he began to grant lands to his followers. A parliament at Pamiers held on 1 December 1212 tried to introduce northern legal practices, such as inheritance rules, and to bar southerners from control of castles. It was a sign that the crusade had entered a new phase in which the northern soldiers would begin to make permanent settlements in the south.

The battle of Muret (12 September 1213) marked a turning point in the campaigning. Simon of Montfort’s small force defeated a much larger army led by Raymond VI of Toulouse and King Peter II of Aragon. The king was killed and the southerners routed. Although Toulouse itself did not fall, Raymond VI was now a fugitive and all of the rest of the south was under Simon’s control. He assumed the title of count of Toulouse and with the enthusiastic support of the local church hierarchy so reduced the area that only Toulouse itself was outside his control. The pope now intervened, protecting Toulouse from further attack and calling the Fourth Lateran Council.

The council (November 1215) was primarily concerned with settling affairs inside Christendom in such a way that a new crusade to the Holy Land would be possible. A settlement for Languedoc, which the pope now ordered, was ancillary to the ecclesiastical work. The pope proposed to carry through his claim to be able to depose secular rulers by taking the county of Toulouse from Raymond VI, as punishment for his support of the heretics, and recognizing Simon of Montfort as count in his place. The new settlement was not accepted by the majority of southerners, and Raymond VI and his son, “the Young Raymond (VII),” returned to Languedoc from Rome determined to continue the war with new support. Both men were now active. The ensuing campaign continued to be a disaster for the south as Simon of Montfort took control of Toulouse for a while and destroyed its walls. In the autumn of 1217 Raymond VI was invited back to the city, which defied Simon. A long siege followed. Simon of Montfort was killed on 25 June 1218 when he was struck on the head by a stone fired from an engine, supposedly worked by women: according to a contemporary chronicler, “the stone arrived just where needed” [La Chanson de la Croisade Albigeoise, ed. and trans. E. Martin- Chabot, 3d ed. (Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1976), 3:207]. His son Amalric was unable to continue the siege. Over the next few years he lost ground to the southerners, now led increasingly by Raymond VII, who succeeded to his father’s claims when Raymond VI died in 1222. On 25 January 1224, the bankrupt Amalric of Montfort retired to the family lands near Paris, taking his father’s body with him. Raymond Trencavel, the son of Raymond-Roger Trencavel, reentered Carcassonne as viscount.

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