Navies

Confederate Commerce Raiders

Navies 4 Min Read

The Confederate raider Shenandoah undergoing repairs in Melbourne, Australia. (U.S. Naval Historical Center) Washington controlled 90 percent of America’s naval resources at the start of the Civil War. Therefore, the Confederate States Navy—created on February 21, 1861, two months before hostilities began—resorted to unconventional means. Jefferson Davis invited privateers to apply for licenses as early as April 17, two days…

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Navies Warship 15 Min Read

The Battleship Race Won and the Strategy Lost

USS Arizona Built in 1913 and was the second and last of the Pennsylvania Class “super-dreadnought” battleships and primarily served stateside during WWI. She was part of the escort of the USS George Washington that carried President Wilson to the Paris Peace Conference on December 13, 1918. 31,400 tons and…

Navies Operations 10 Min Read

After Okinawa 1945

Haruna at her moorings near Kure, Japan, under attack by U.S. Navy carrier aircraft, 28 July 1945 Wreck of Tone at Kure The Heavy Cruiser Tone, sister of Chikuma survived many battles and was sunk at anchor in Kure harbor by US carrier aircraft on July 24th 1945. Her hulk…

Navies Shipbuilding Warship 10 Min Read

Dutch Navy

De Zeven Provinciën was a Dutch ship of the line, originally armed with 80 guns. The name of the ship was also written as De 7 Provinciën. The literal translation is “The Seven Provinces”, the name referring to the fact that the Dutch Republic in the 17th century was a…

Ancient Warfare Navies Roman 23 Min Read

Roman Success at Sea in 260–257 BC

In the 3rd century BC, Rome was not a naval power, and had little or no experience in war at sea. Before the First Punic War, the Roman Republic had not campaigned outside the Italian Peninsula. The Republic’s military strength was on land, and her greatest assets were the discipline…

Navies Warship 31 Min Read

SUBMARINES AND SUBMARINERS

The submarine was a subversive force. Its ability to hide within the element on which the battlefleet held sway threatened the great ships, the theory and practice of their employment, above all the admirals who had risen in their service; during the 1920s and 1930s these held power and patronage,…

Ancient Warfare Naval Navies 13 Min Read

TRIREME FIGHTING IN THE AEGEAN (411–405) I

The type of bow most people are familiar with is the “post Corinthian” bow. Previously, triremes had a ‘hollow’ bow. See Connolly’s reconstruction of this type, p.265 “Greece and Rome at War”, and the coin reverses on p.264 giving a good ‘before and after’ idea of the old and modified…

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The Dutch Navy Warships of the Napoleonic Era

An watercolour of a small Dutch frigate shown, from two angles in a common convention…

Roman Success at Sea in 260–257 BC

In the 3rd century BC, Rome was not a naval power, and had little or…

Shō-Go Plan

The Shō-Go Plan (Short for Shō-Itchi-Go, Operation Victory One) marked the last attempt of the…

The Battleship Race Won and the Strategy Lost

USS Arizona Built in 1913 and was the second and last of the Pennsylvania Class…