History

Espionage During the Napoleonic Wars

History Intell 10 Min Read

Charles Schulmeister The Napoleonic wars pitted France, led by Napoleon Bonaparte, against a number of countries in Europe from 1797 through 1815. At different times during this period, Great Britain, Austria, Russia, Prussia, Denmark, Sweden, and the Neapolitan Kingdom all waged war against France in various coalitions. The main rivals in this struggle were Great Britain and France. During this…

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British France History Ottoman Spain 18 Min Read

Elizabeth towards War I

European matchlock musketeers of the Elizabethan period. By the early 1570s the Puritans had grown significantly in numbers and in economic and political clout. They were not only unsatisfied, however, but increasingly discontented. At the same time that they were trying and failing to pressure the government into killing Mary…

British France History Spain 19 Min Read

Elizabeth towards War II

What is often depicted as the apotheosis of the Elizabethan Age, the turning point at which the wisdom of everything the queen had done was made manifest and the way was cleared for England’s emergence as the greatest of world powers, came in the third week of July 1588. It…

History Poland 24 Min Read

Poland Early 18th Century – The Reign of Anarchy I

Augustus II of Poland. 17th Centruy Polish Dragoons By the last quarter of the seventeenth century it was becoming obvious to all that the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was a very different kind of political unit from all the surrounding states, and that it did not lend itself to the conduct of…

History Poland 25 Min Read

Poland Early 18th Century – The Reign of Anarchy II

Polish army throughout the 18th century, by Karol Linder. Sweden had been wiped out as a significant power by the dĂ©bâcle of Poltava. Turkey was decisively defeated (Hetman Feliks Potocki’s victory at Podhajce in 1697 was the last Polish-Tatar battle), and by the Treaty of Karlowitz in January 1699 the…

History 10 Min Read

Consequences of Königgrätz

Battle of Königgrätz, by Georg Bleibtreu. Oil on canvas, 1869. While there is general consensus about the momentous consequences of Königgrätz, there is no agreement about why the battle went the way it did. Historians continue to debate whether it was Prussian competence or Austrian incompetence that accounted for the…

History 5 Min Read

Finnish Forces in Barbarossa I

The OKW was given the responsibility under the Barbarossa Directive to make the necessary arrangements to put Romanian and Finnish contingents under German command. There is no evidence that this was seriously tried with respect to Finland. Command and command relationships were discussed during the Finnish delegation’s visit to Germany…

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Elizabeth towards War I

European matchlock musketeers of the Elizabethan period. By the early 1570s the Puritans had grown…

Uniforms of Italian Wars (1494-1559)

A series of sharp but also intermittent conflicts broke out over control of Italy at…

The Khmer Empire

In 1181, King Jayavarman VII launched a military campaign against the Chams, as vengeance for…

Ancient Israel – Warfare

Approximate map of the Iron Age kingdom of Israel (blue) and kingdom of Judah (yellow),…