Organisation

US Army Independent Tank Battalion Combat Operations I

Armies Organisation 11 Min Read

Organizational change and doctrinal definition did not adequately prepare independent tank battalions for actual combat conditions. The first encounter with German forces occurred in December 1942 during combat in Tunisia. A company of the 70th Tank Battalion was roughly handled and suffered extensive losses. The effectiveness of independent tank battalions tended to improve over time, but they could not always…

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Air Warfare Organisation 17 Min Read

Fourteenth Air Force

14th Air Force B-24, China, c. 1944. Newly arrived Fourteenth Air Force B-24 Liberators on the line at Kunming Airport. B-25s in China. The Japanese were unable to defeat Nationalist China before they had commitments to their Pacific War, from December 1941. Now with Allied aid supporting China, even if…

China Medieval Organisation Personnel 11 Min Read

Late Medieval China

A Chinese cavalryman c. 1260 is shown firing on a Mongolian warrior. The huo qiang or fire lance, which may date back to the 10th century. It was essentially a hollow tube made from thick layers of I paper, inside which was put a charge of gunpowder and shrapnel pieces.…

Armies Japan Organisation 27 Min Read

The Army of Meiji 3 of 3 Parts

“Aoyama; Kanpeishiki no Zu”. Emperor Meiji holds a military review at army camp in Aoyama. The Reorganized Superintendency In May 1885 the army ministry revised the garrison regulations. The commander of each garrison became a division commander while the superintendent controlled two divisions and became a corps commander.48 This was…

Germany Operations Organisation Soviet 21 Min Read

The Legacy of Unternehmen Barbarossa I

As far as high-speed mechanized troops are concerned and their location on the forward zone, one has, in general, to see the threat of their sudden concentration in the mere fact of their existence. These motorized troops, having carried out a march of up to 100 kilometers on the day…

Germany Operations Organisation Soviet 23 Min Read

The Legacy of Unternehmen Barbarossa II

Barbarossa’s failure to deliver the knockout blow and the subsequent failure to take Moscow suggest that December 1941 was the moment Germany lost the war. At best, it could expect a long war of attrition in a struggle against the combined might of the United States, the British Empire, and…

Organisation 39 Min Read

The Infrastructure of War

The impact of gunpowder on warfare made itself felt in the field of tactics above all. Its effect on organization, logistics, intelligence, command and control, and on strategy itself, was much less, and for the most part indirect. To understand the technological reality underlying the evolution of warfare in these…

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Austro-Hungarian Cavalry WWI

Pack-horse of a cavalry machine gun detachment; members of these and the telegraph detachments were…

Fourteenth Air Force

14th Air Force B-24, China, c. 1944. Newly arrived Fourteenth Air Force B-24 Liberators on…

Red Army Shermans of WWII Part I

The story of the Sherman tank in Soviet service during World War II has received…

Red Army Shermans of WWII Part II

RED ARMY SHERMAN UNITS This list is far from exhaustive but does go some way…