Roman

Conquests and frontiers – Augustus – Tiberius

Ancient Warfare Roman 9 Min Read

Augustus was no great military leader, and had the good sense to recognize the fact. In his early years he relied heavily on Marcus Agrippa, his faithful friend, who had commanded the fleet at Actium. After Actium, Augustus took a personal lead in only one further campaign, the Cantabrian War of 26-25 BC in Spain; but even there it was…

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Ancient Warfare Roman 15 Min Read

The Shadow of Rome

King Philip V, and Amyntas, Son of Alexandros, 197 BC Battle of Cynoscephalae When the Greek world had first become aware of Rome over a century before, it had been with the awareness of a predator seeing a large and tempting quarry wander into view. At that time Rome had…

Ancient Warfare Roman Spain 11 Min Read

Sertorian War (80-72 B. C. E.)

Sertorius was a disaffected Roman who fought successfully against Sulla and Pompey. He was a masterly tactician specialising in surprise and ambushes exploiting wooded hills and according to Plutarch introduced Roman weapons, formations and signals. The 53 cohorts of Roman exiles under the treacherous Paperna that joined him maintained a…

Ancient Warfare Navies Roman 23 Min Read

Roman Success at Sea in 260–257 BC

In the 3rd century BC, Rome was not a naval power, and had little or no experience in war at sea. Before the First Punic War, the Roman Republic had not campaigned outside the Italian Peninsula. The Republic’s military strength was on land, and her greatest assets were the discipline…

Ancient Warfare Battle Roman 16 Min Read

Battle of Frigidus River, 5–6 September 394

Arbogastes’ continual high-handed treatment of the emperor Valentinian II caused the latter to give him publicly a letter that terminated his command. Arbogastes, however, after having read the letter simply tore up it and stated that Valentinian had not given him his command and therefore could not sack him. Now…

Ancient Warfare Biography Roman 35 Min Read

Marcus Ulpius Traianus (AD 56–117) Part I

Marcus Ulpius Traianus (AD 56–117) He always marched on foot with the rank and file of his army, and he attended to the ordering and disposition of the troops throughout the entire campaign, leading them sometimes in one order and sometimes in another; and he forded all rivers that they…

Biography Roman 30 Min Read

Marcus Ulpius Traianus (AD 56–117) Part II

It does seem to have been fairly common by the late first century AD to form the first line of infantry from auxiliary troops, whilst the legions formed the second and subsequent lines. This was certainly logical, for the higher organization of the legions, with ten cohorts coming under the…

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Etruscan Warriors

1. EARLY VILLANOVAN CULTURE, 9th–8th CENTURIES BC.(1) Leader with war-chariot, Tarchuna area. The early example…

The Shadow of Rome

King Philip V, and Amyntas, Son of Alexandros, 197 BC Battle of Cynoscephalae When the…

The Sixth-Century Army of Justinian

The sixth-century army of Justinian’s era, like its earlier counterparts, was an entirely professional force,…

Sertorian War (80-72 B. C. E.)

Sertorius was a disaffected Roman who fought successfully against Sulla and Pompey. He was a…