The Early Jacobite Invasions of England

British France History 18 Min Read

James II died a broken man in 1701, convinced his God had deserted him. His successor was his only legitimate son, James Francis Edward Stuart, whose birth in 1688 had been the pretext for the Glorious Revolution which had deposed his father. His supporters proclaimed him James III of England and Ireland and James VIII of Scotland. Louis XIV and


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British History 14 Min Read

Invasion of Java (1811) Part I

The invasion of Java in 1811 was a successful British amphibious operation against the Dutch East Indian island of Java that took place between August and September 1811 during the Napoleonic Wars. Originally established as a colony of the Dutch Republic, Java remained in Dutch hands throughout the French Revolutionary

British History 12 Min Read

Invasion of Java (1811) Part II

An almighty explosion As the sun slipped up over the lush green Javanese countryside, the battle for Meester Cornelis got under way. Gillespie and his men forced their way across the Slokan and overwhelmed Redoubt Number Four in a welter of close combat. Eventually the missing columns appeared from the

Germany History Waffen-SS 11 Min Read

The Sylwester offensives

The main Nordwind attack by the 17. SS-Panzergrenadier-Division in the Saar Valley went badly from the start. On January 5, 1945, a few of the monstrous Jagdtigers from schwere-Panzerjager-Abteilung 654, accompanied by a captured M4 medium tank, supported the attack near Rimling. An M36 90mm GMC from the 776th Tank

Germany History 13 Min Read

Confederation of the Rhine (1806-1813)

The Confederation of the Rhine (Rheinbund) was a conglomeration of German states organized by Napoleon, who hoped that Germany would develop into a unified state with a central government and administration modeling the political institutions of France. The opportunity for such a grandiose plan emerged after the decisive defeat of

Germany History Soviet 7 Min Read

Col. David Glantz – Red Army before Warsaw 1944

SS-Obersturmführer Karl Nicolussi-Leck (Panther’s cupola), commander of 8./SS-Panzerregiment 5 of the Wiking Division, and a Sd.Kfz. 251/3 Ausf. D, during the battles east of Warsaw, August 1944. Between August 18-22, IV.SS-Panzer-Korps, comprising the Totenkopf and the Wiking Division, destroyed 98 Soviet tanks destroyed in the battles around Warsaw. Soviet (1st

History Prussia 9 Min Read

Brandenburg and the first Nordic War 1655-60

Frederick William, the “Great Elector”. As Frederick William finally took possession of East Pomerania, his interest in the Baltic intensified. In 1654 Queen Christina of Sweden abdicated in favour of her cousin, Charles X. The new king showed every sign of emulating Gustavus Adolphus in his desire to make the

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Elizabeth towards War I

European matchlock musketeers of the Elizabethan period. By the early 1570s the Puritans had grown

Uniforms of Italian Wars (1494-1559)

A series of sharp but also intermittent conflicts broke out over control of Italy at

Poland Early 18th Century – The Reign of Anarchy II

Polish army throughout the 18th century, by Karol Linder. Sweden had been wiped out as

Elizabeth towards War II

What is often depicted as the apotheosis of the Elizabethan Age, the turning point at