The Career of Nādir Shāh – Afsharid Persia

History 27 Min Read

Battle of Mehmandust (1729) The Ghilzai Afghans who, as it were by chance, had overthrown the Ṣafawid empire in 1134–5/1722 did not retain control of Persia for very long. In fact, they did not control a good deal of the country at all. They did have possession of the person of the last fully fledged Ṣafawid shāh, Sulṭān Ḥusayn; and


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History 6 Min Read

Finnish Forces in Barbarossa II

The development of a staff study by Group XXI (Army of Norway) for operations in Finland based on Directive 21. The study was expanded by Marshal von Brauchitsch on January 16 to include examining the feasibility of a German–Finnish southeast drive in the area of Lake Ladoga, Lake Onega, and

Biography History Spain 17 Min Read

Fernando VI (1746–59), King of Spain

Portrait by Louis Michel Van Loo The Franco-Spanish fleet commanded by Don Juan José Navarro drove off the British fleet under Thomas Mathews near Toulon in 1744. Fernando VI (1746–59) ascended to the throne at the age of thirty-three, mature and well trained in the business of government. As the

Biography History Spain 24 Min Read

Carlos III’s Reign

Portrait by Anton Raphael Mengs, c. 1761 Though Fernando VI’s reign saw the end of French tutelage, the latest intellectual currents from France and elsewhere circulated among the Spanish elite and characterized Spain’s version of the Enlightenment. Spain adopted the enlightened passion for scientific investigation, governmental reform, and social justice

Austria France History Italy 12 Min Read

The War of Austrian Succession: 1740-1748 – In Italy

The death of the Chevalier de Belle-Isle, Battle of Assietta. In October 1740, Emperor Charles VI died. In his youth he had held title as the Archduke Charles, claimant to the Spanish crown and for whom the Habsburgs waged the War for the Spanish Succession. He left a single heir,

Ancient Warfare History 10 Min Read

The Spartan Anomaly

Sparta was the one city-state in Greece that deviated from the pattern of warfare described above. By the sixth century BCE, the Spartans had established the only real standing army in Greece, training hoplites who can be classified as professionals. Sparta’s deviation from the norm stemmed from a war fought

Biography History 8 Min Read

Thutmose III

Widely considered a military genius by historians, Thutmose III made 16 raids in 20 years. He was an active expansionist ruler, sometimes called Egypt’s greatest conqueror or “the Napoleon of Egypt.” He is recorded to have captured 350 cities during his rule and conquered much of the Near East from

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Elizabeth towards War I

European matchlock musketeers of the Elizabethan period. By the early 1570s the Puritans had grown

Uniforms of Italian Wars (1494-1559)

A series of sharp but also intermittent conflicts broke out over control of Italy at

Elizabeth towards War II

What is often depicted as the apotheosis of the Elizabethan Age, the turning point at

Poland Early 18th Century – The Reign of Anarchy II

Polish army throughout the 18th century, by Karol Linder. Sweden had been wiped out as