Warfare Frankish Greece 1204-1380 I

Byzantine Crusades 15 Min Read

Frankish Greece, 1204–61 The Fourth Crusade (1202-04), consisting of a land army composed of French and Italian troops and a powerful Venetian naval fleet, had originally been planned as an offensive against Egypt. Through a combination of greed, political intrigue and mutual distrust, the expedition ended up attacking the Greeks instead. After the Crusade captured Constantinople in 1204, those members


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Byzantine Crusades 27 Min Read

Constantinople 1204

The preaching of Fulk of Neuilly, Peter Capuano, and others bore fruit when Counts Thibaud III of Champagne and Louis I of Blois took the cross at a tournament at Ecry-surAisne on 28 November 1199. Other lords and knights followed suit, including Baldwin IX of Flanders, Hugh of Saint Pol,

Byzantine History Ottoman 8 Min Read

The first challenge: Bayezid I’s siege of Constantinople (1394–1402) I

Contemporary Byzantine tradition ascribed the deliverance of Constantinople to a miraculous intervention by the Virgin Mary (Theotokos). Constantinople in 1422; the oldest surviving map of the city. Ottoman troops roaming the outskirts of Constantinople had seized almost all the lands surrounding the city by the year 1391, that is, a

Battle Byzantine 22 Min Read

Manzikert I

In the period from the late 1040s until the late 1060s the Seljuk Turks under the Sultan Alp Arslan (1063-1073) had made considerable inroads into formerly Byzantine territory in eastern Anatolia. As ruler of Iran, Iraq and northern Syria – nominally for the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad – Arslan had

Battle Byzantine 18 Min Read

Manzikert II

That evening, however, the mobility and speed of the Turkish troops was demonstrated once more, for while a number of the Oğuz mercenaries were outside the camp doing business with local traders and merchants, Seljuk warriors appeared once again in the semi-darkness and swept in to harry those caught off

Byzantine Italy Medieval 14 Min Read

Sicily between Byzantium and the Islamic World

The Hariri Ship, the first known picture of an Arab sailing vessel. Map of the Arab–Byzantine naval conflict in the Mediterranean, 7th–11th centuries. Map of southern Italy in the 10th century. Byzantine provinces (themes) in yellow, Lombard principalities in other colours. Afterwards, the Saracens who had sailed from Rome came

Byzantine 30 Min Read

‘Better the Turkish Turban than the Papal Tiara’

proverbial saying attributed to Loukas Notaras, grand admiral in the years 1444–53 Between the recovery of Constantinople from the Latins in 1261 and its fall to the Ottomans in 1453, Byzantine foreign policy was dominated by the question of the union of the churches. Political considerations required emperors to pursue

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The Military of the Byzantines

Dominant military forces of the Middle East between the fourth and fifteenth centuries. At Manzikert

Roman to Byzantine Army Transition Part I

In 330 ce, Constantine I, Emperor of the Romans, founded a new capital for his

Constantinople 1204

The preaching of Fulk of Neuilly, Peter Capuano, and others bore fruit when Counts Thibaud

The Bulwark Against Islam

  Sulayman, king of the Arabs said, ‘I shall not cease from the struggle with