Crusades

King Peter’s Crusade

Crusades 15 Min Read

Andrea Bonaiuti’s fresco ‘The Church Militant’ in the Spanish Chapel, St Maria Novella, Florence, portraying the leading lights in crusading at the time (back row, right to left, beginning with the black-bearded noble carrying a sword): Amadeus VI count of Savoy, King Peter I of Cyprus, the Emperor Charles IV, Pope Urban V, the papal legate in Italy, Gil Albornoz;…

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Crusades Naval 10 Min Read

‘The Profit That God Shall Give’

A typical 12th century Genoese trader, at this time merchant ships relied on sails rather than oars. Such vessels displaced between 10-30 tons and were crewed by 40-60 men.​ The principal route followed by the First Crusade bypassed the Mediterranean and took the army overland through the Balkans and Anatolia;…

Crusades Medieval 7 Min Read

Holy Lance

The ultimate fate of the lance found at Antioch is unclear. Raymond of Aguilers writes that it was carried into battle when the crusaders marched against the Fāțimid-held city of Ascalon (mod. Tel Ashqelon, Israel) in August 1099, while Fulcher of Chartres comments that Raymond of Saint-Gilles kept the relic…

Crusades Medieval 17 Min Read

Outremer’s Demise

Salah ad-Din, or Saladin as he is known in the West, had been born in Tikrit in modern-day Iraq in 1137. Saladin’s forces besiege the walls of Jerusalem. Having set to rights the last of Nur al-Din’s legacy, Saladin faced a Frankish problem rather different from the one that had…

Crusades Medieval 12 Min Read

THE KINGDOM FALLS

Siege of Acre 1291 – Guillaume de Clermont Defending Ptolemais from the Saracen invasion. The fall of Acre signaled the end of the Jerusalem crusades. No effective crusade was raised to recapture the Holy Land afterwards, though talk of further crusades was common enough. By 1291, other ideals had captured…

Crusades Medieval 5 Min Read

Port of Ascalon

General plan of Tell al-Khadra, Ascalon. Having been a port and trade center since the II millennium B.C., the city became famous during the classical era for its temples (Dagon, Apollo, the Heavenly Aphrodite, Atargatis) and many gardens. 1. Cananaean Gate 2. Basilica 3. Bouleuterion 4. Ancient tell 5. Remains…

Byzantine Crusades 27 Min Read

Constantinople 1204

The preaching of Fulk of Neuilly, Peter Capuano, and others bore fruit when Counts Thibaud III of Champagne and Louis I of Blois took the cross at a tournament at Ecry-surAisne on 28 November 1199. Other lords and knights followed suit, including Baldwin IX of Flanders, Hugh of Saint Pol,…

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The Abbasid Caliphate

The Abbasid revolt began a new age for the Umma. Many Muslims had high expectations…

Arms and Armor Crusades

The arms and armor of the Christian West, Outremer, and Byzantium had a great deal…

Warfare in the Spanish Reconquista Era I

During the age of the crusades the organization and operations of Christian armies engaged in…

Christians, Muslims and Conflicts Up to the First Crusade Part IV

Indeed, medieval writers referred to crusaders and pilgrims with exactly the same word, peregrinus. As…