“We must now return to Virginia.”

Armies Battle Operations 15 Min Read

After Pickett’s Charge at Gettysburg, General Lee rode out to the edge of the battlefield and watched his shattered forces returning. “It’s my fault” he was reported to say, “It is I who have lost this fight, it’s all my fault.” To General Pickett he said, “You must look after your division.” And Pickett replied, “General Lee, I have no


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Armies 10 Min Read

The Cycle of Battle

The Battle of Blenheim, 1704 – Original Painting by Graham Turner Ref: GT133 Battles usually start when both sides agree to fight. Sometimes there can be a ritual to them. The Battle of the Spurs (1513) resembled the fights of the New Guinea Stone Age tribesmen, where many insults are

Ancient Warfare Armies 4 Min Read

The New Kingdom Army

The pharaoh headed Egypt’s armed forces as commander-in-chief. As the warrior king he led a highly organised and professional standing army and navy. Tactics and strategies were decided upon by the pharaoh, in consultation with his war council. During the time of Thutmose III there appears to have been only

Armies Ottoman Spain 11 Min Read

Spanish arquebusier

1568. Battle of Jemmingen. Spanish arquebusiers. Angel García Pinto for Desperta Ferro magazine Gonzalo de Córdoba, (1453-1515). “el Gran Capitan.” Castilian general who reformed the tercios, reducing reliance on polearms and bringing more guns to reinforced pike formations that could operate independently because of their increased firepower. He fought in

Armies 7 Min Read

Reich and Reichsarmee

At the beginning of February 1763, the Reichstag formally ended the Reichskrieg and declared the Reich to be neutral, which the Prussian representative Erich Christoph von Plotho declared Prussia would respect. This ended a long period of growing ambivalence and uncertainty. The liberation of Saxony remained the Reichstag’s only war

Armies British 5 Min Read


25th Regiment of Foot. A lengthy period of service in Minorca (1768-80) was followed in 1782 by an expedition to Gibraltar, which was under attack by Spain. In the same year the Regiment was retitled ‘The 25th (Sussex) Regiment of Foot’. It was thought that the addition of an English

Armies Germany Prussia 8 Min Read

The Rebirth of the German Cavalry

Late 19th century Prussian Cuirassiers The countryside around Konitz simmered in the warm September sun. The fields were not planted. There were no rivers and few trees. An occasional, gentle rise in the landscape was all that interrupted the drab flatness of the area. Located in the Baltic province of

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Hannibal and his staff at the battle of Zama – art by Giuseppe Rava The

Allied Occupation of France: 1815‒18 and the Royalist French Army is Rebuilt

French assault on Fort Trocadero 1823. In 1823 100,000 French troops, nominally commanded by M

The Hanoverian Army at Waterloo

The Hanoverian contingent in Wellington’s army was integrated fully into the British divisional structure; it

The French Army – Middle of Sixteenth Century

The military establishment of 1552 needed to be ratcheted up by the demands of repeated