Europe in 1763. By the middle of the eighteenth century, five major powers dominated Europe-Prussia, Austria, Russia, Britain, and France. Each sought to enhance its power both domestically, through a bureaucracy that collected taxes and ran the military, and internationally, by capturing territory or preventing other powers from doing so.
There is no doubt that Enlightenment thought had some impact on the political development of European states in the eighteenth century. The philosophes believed in natural rights, which were thought to be privileges that ought not to be withheld from any person. These natural rights included equality before the law, freedom of religious worship, freedom of speech and press, and the rights to assemble, hold property, and pursue happiness.
But how were these natural rights to be established and preserved? Most philosophes believed that people needed to be ruled by an enlightened ruler. What, however, made rulers enlightened? They must allow religious toleration, freedom of speech and press, and the rights of private property. They must foster the arts, sciences, and education. Above all, they must obey the laws and enforce them fairly for all subjects. Only strong monarchs seemed capable of overcoming vested interests and effecting the reforms society needed. Reforms then should come from above (from absolute rulers) rather than from below (from the people).
Many historians once assumed that a new type of monarchy emerged in the later eighteenth century, which they called enlightened despotism or enlightened absolutism. Monarchs such as Frederick II of Prussia, Catherine the Great of Russia, and Joseph II of Austria supposedly followed the advice of the philosophes and ruled by enlightened principles. Recently, however, scholars have questioned the usefulness of the concept of enlightened absolutism. We can determine the extent to which it can be applied by examining the major “enlightened absolutists” of the late eighteenth century.
Frederick II, known as Frederick the Great (1740–1786), was one of the best-educated and most cultured monarchs of the eighteenth century. He was well versed in Enlightenment thought and even invited Voltaire to live at his court for several years. A believer in the king as the “first servant of the state,” Frederick the Great was a conscientious ruler who enlarged the Prussian army (to 200,000 men) and kept a strict watch over the bureaucracy.
For a time, Frederick seemed quite willing to make enlightened reforms. He abolished the use of torture except in treason and murder cases and also granted limited freedom of speech and press, as well as complete religious toleration. His efforts were limited, however, as he kept Prussia’s rigid social structure and serfdom intact and avoided any additional reforms.
The Austrian Empire of the Habsburgs
The Austrian Empire had become one of the great European states by the beginning of the eighteenth century. Yet it was difficult to rule because it was a sprawling conglomerate of nationalities, languages, religions, and cultures.
Joseph II (1780–1790) believed in the need to sweep away anything standing in the path of reason. As he said, “I have made Philosophy the lawmaker of my empire; her logical applications are going to transform Austria.” Joseph’s reform program was far-reaching. He abolished serfdom, abrogated the death penalty, and established the principle of equality of all before the law. Joseph instituted drastic religious reforms as well, including complete religious toleration.
Joseph’s reform program proved overwhelming for Austria, however. He alienated the nobility by freeing the serfs and alienated the church by his attacks on the monastic establishment. Joseph realized his failure when he wrote the epitaph for his own gravestone: “Here lies Joseph II, who was unfortunate in everything that he undertook.” His successors undid many of his reforms.
Russia Under Catherine the Great
Catherine II the Great (1762–1796) was an intelligent woman who was familiar with the works of the philosophes and seemed to favor enlightened reforms. She invited the French philosophe Diderot to Russia and, when he arrived, urged him to speak frankly “as man to man.” He did, outlining a far-reaching program of political and financial reform. But Catherine was skeptical about impractical theories, which, she said, “would have turned everything in my kingdom upside down.” She did consider the idea of a new law code that would recognize the principle of the equality of all people in the eyes of the law. But in the end she did nothing, knowing that her success depended on the support of the Russian nobility. In 1785, she gave the nobles a charter that exempted them from taxes. Catherine’s policy of favoring the landed nobility led to even worse conditions for the Russian peasants and sparked a rebellion, but it soon faltered and collapsed. Catherine responded with even harsher measures against the peasantry.
Above all, Catherine proved a worthy successor to Peter the Great in her policies of territorial expansion westward into Poland and southward to the Black Sea. Russia spread southward by defeating the Turks. Russian expansion westward occurred at the expense of neighboring Poland. In three partitions of Poland, Russia gained about 50 percent of Polish territory.
Enlightened Absolutism Reconsidered
Of the rulers we have discussed, only Joseph II sought truly radical changes based on Enlightenment ideas. Both Frederick II and Catherine II liked to talk about enlightened reforms, and they even attempted some. But neither ruler’s policies seemed seriously affected by Enlightenment thought. Necessities of state and maintenance of the existing system took precedence over reform. Indeed, many historians maintain that Joseph, Frederick, and Catherine were all primarily guided by a concern for the power and well-being of their states. In the final analysis, heightened state power was used to create armies and wage wars to gain more power.
It would be foolish, however, to overlook the fact that the ability of enlightened rulers to make reforms was also limited by political and social realities. Everywhere in Europe, the hereditary aristocracy was still the most powerful class in society. As the chief beneficiaries of a system based on traditional rights and privileges for their class, the nobles were not willing to support a political ideology that trumpeted the principle of equal rights for all. The first serious challenge to their supremacy would come with the French Revolution, an event that blew open the door to the modern world of politics.
Changing Patterns of War: Global Confrontation
The philosophes condemned war as a foolish waste of life and resources in stupid quarrels of no value to humankind. Despite their criticisms, the rivalry among European states that led to costly struggles continued unabated. Eighteenth-century Europe consisted of a number of self-governing, individual states that were chiefly guided by the self-interest of the ruler. And as Frederick the Great of Prussia said, “The fundamental rule of governments is the principle of extending their territories.”
By far the most dramatic confrontation occurred in the Seven Years’ War. Although it began in Europe, it soon turned into a global conflict fought in Europe, India, and North America. In Europe, the British and Prussians fought the Austrians, Russians, and French. With his superb army and military skill, Frederick the Great of Prussia was able for some time to defeat the Austrian, French, and Russian armies. Eventually, however, his forces were gradually worn down and faced utter defeat until a new Russian tsar withdrew Russia’s troops from the conflict. A stalemate ensued, ending the European conflict in 1763.
The struggle between Britain and France in the rest of the world had more decisive results. In India, local rulers allied with British and French troops fought a number of battles. Ultimately, the British under Robert Clive won out, not because they had better forces but because they were more persistent. By the Treaty of Paris in 1763, the French withdrew and left India to the British.
The greatest conflicts of the Seven Years’ War took place in North America, where it was known as the French and Indian War. French North America (Canada and Louisiana) was thinly populated and run by the French government as a vast trading area. British North America had come to consist of thirteen colonies on the eastern coast of the present United States. These were thickly populated, containing about 1.5 million people by 1750, and were also prosperous.
British and French rivalry finally led war. Despite initial French successes, the British went on to seize Montreal, the Great Lakes area, and the Ohio valley. The French were forced to make peace. By the Treaty of Paris, they ceded Canada and the lands east of the Mississippi to Britain. Their ally Spain transferred Spanish Florida to British control; in return, the French gave their Louisiana territory to the Spanish. By 1763, Great Britain had become the world’s greatest colonial power. For France, the loss of its empire was soon followed by an even greater internal upheaval.