Italy

GIUSEPPE GARIBALDI, (1807–1882).

Biography Italy 13 Min Read

Born in Nice to a sea captain father, the young Garibaldi was a professional revolutionary. He took part in the Mazzinian uprising against the Piedmontese monarchy in 1834 and, following its suppression, was condemned to death for his role in the fighting. Garibaldi, however, had fled to Brazil. There, he met his first wife, Anita, and fought gallantly for six…

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Air Warfare Aircraft Italy 14 Min Read

Flying Rats I

Struggle is the origin of all things, for life is filled with opposites: love and hate, white and black, day and night, good and evil. And as long as these opposites do not maintain a balance, struggle will determine human nature as the final power of fate. Mussolini With victory…

Air Warfare Aircraft Italy 14 Min Read

Flying Rats II

Many government officials particularly criticized Mussolini for his mild treatment of Amedeo Adriano Bordiga. It was deemed too extreme even for his fellow Marxists, who expelled Bordiga from the Italian Communst Party; he was briefly interned in 1925, later freed under police surveillance. The last arrests of Giustiziae e Liberta…

British Italy Naval History 20 Min Read

Red Sea Convoys

HMS Kimberley (photographed in 1942) Italian destroyer Pantera The first of the Red Sea convoys, collectively the BN/BS series, consisting of nine ships including six tankers, gathered in the Gulf of Aden on 2 July. Thereafter these convoys sailed up and down the Red Sea on a regular schedule. Admiral…

Austria France Italy 18 Min Read

Franz Joseph’s Empire, Sisi, and Hungary I

Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph with his troops at the Battle of Solferino, 1859 On 6 October 1849, the former prime minister of Hungary, Count Louis Batthyány, was taken into the courtyard of the main gaol of Pest. An Austrian military court had condemned him to hang for treason on account…

Italy 13 Min Read

Italian Air Force Special Units; Italy, 1942

(1) Tenente, Air Force Assault Engineer Battalion (ADRA) This is the khaki cotton version of the typical collarless jacket of Italian special forces, otherwise cut like the ‘Sahariana’. Note the matching beret, wide paratrooper’s trousers and black jump-boots; an officer’s ‘Sam Browne’ belt with Beretta M34 holster; and the special…

Artillery Italy 3 Min Read

La Spingarda

The drawings depict minors two shells with gunpowder, top «wants the bag inside the bullet“; a queue of bombs “that does not come back to dirieto to take in galley” (the galley was the typical warship used in the Mediterranean from the ninth to the eighteenth century.); Other casing with…

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Uniforms of Italian Wars (1494-1559)

A series of sharp but also intermittent conflicts broke out over control of Italy at…

THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE ARMIES 1000-1300

Medieval Prints by Graham Turner Although firmly rooted and fairly well developed in the Rhineland,…

Italian Renaissance Infantry

It is a commonly held view that disciplined and effective infantry largely disappeared from the…

Warfare in Renaissance Italy

At the conclusion of the fifteenth century, Italy remained divided. There were four kingdoms: Sardinia,…