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London: The Medieval Port

British History Merchant Navigation Trade 16 Min Read

Alfred was already a battle-hardened young man when he succeeded his father to the throne of Wessex in 871 at the age of 21, having spent much of his teenage years fighting the Vikings on land and sea. Following his victory at the Battle of Edington in 878, the Viking forces, under their leader Guthrum, retreated eastwards. King Alfred began

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Biography Japan Navigation 61 Min Read

Hasekura Tsunenaga: 1571–1622?

A replica of the Japanese-built galleon San Juan Bautista, in Ishinomaki, Japan. December 1613. A samurai retainer from northern Japan stands on the deck of his ship as it clips along, sails billowing in the wind. For centuries, craft of all kinds have ferried passengers, troops and trade goods around

Biography Navigation Russia 17 Min Read

Vitus Jonassen Bering I

RCHKG8 Fur Traders of the Russian-American Company. Museum: State Central Navy Museum, St. Petersburg. Author: Pshenichny, Igor Pavlovich. On November 5, 1724, Peter the Great waded waist-deep into the icy waters of the Gulf of Finland to help rescue some sailors whose boat had capsized. Fever and chills followed, later

Biography Navigation Russia 19 Min Read

Vitus Jonassen Bering II

Post-mortem reconstruction of Vitus Jonassen Bering’s face. On July 14, 1728 – three and a half years after leaving St. Petersburg – Bering’s newly constructed ship, the St. Gabriel, stocked with enough food to sustain its crew of forty for a year, sailed from the mouth of the Kamchatka River.

Navigation Shipbuilding 25 Min Read

Muslims in the Indian Ocean I

The Dhow is not an Arab ship, it is a veritable family of vessels sharing common characteristics, such as the hull, large (about 4 to 1), with straight cut lines, with three masterpieces whose bow, long and the keel, and the stern, less inclined, and one or two masts carrying

Navigation 24 Min Read

Muslims in the Indian Ocean II

Piri Reis’ Book on Navigation (Kitab-i Bahriyye) Grose also approved of the coir rigging: ‘more harsh and intractable than what is produced from hemp’, but they lasted longer than hemp in salt water. Even the cotton sails were fine: true, they were not as strong as European canvas, but they

Aircraft Navigation 11 Min Read

Military Uses of the American Space Shuttle

There was originally supposed to be a “blue” (Air Force) Shuttle. Military missions benefit from retrograde orbits, so there was originally supposed to be a west coast launch facility (Vandenberg) as well. The shuttle was saddled with large cross-range landing requirements which were entirely due to the DoD’s involvement (and

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Vitus Jonassen Bering I

RCHKG8 Fur Traders of the Russian-American Company. Museum: State Central Navy Museum, St. Petersburg. Author:

Military Uses of the American Space Shuttle

There was originally supposed to be a “blue” (Air Force) Shuttle. Military missions benefit from

London: The Medieval Port

Alfred was already a battle-hardened young man when he succeeded his father to the throne

The Adoption of Crusade Ideology in Mesoamerica

Many motives drove Christopher Columbus to sail west toward the Indies, but one purpose that