In 1784 an innocuous-appearing German professor in Konigsberg published a short article. The professor’s name was Immanuel Kant, and the article had the tortuous and eminently German title of “Idea for a Universal History with a Cosmopolitan Intent.” In it Professor Kant took issue with the current Enlightenment fiction that if society could only get rid of a few more evils, Utopia was just around the corner. Utopia, he said, will never arrive. Progress there is and undeniably so. But every step forward to a new level of progress, every solution to one generation’s difficulties, brings with it a new set. Each era has to solve its own problems, and in doing so it uncovers or even creates problems for its successors. World War II certainly created as many problems as it solved; in fact, as most wars seem to do, it may have created more. That does not mean it was not worth fighting, or need not have been fought. Evil does exist in the world—it undeniably existed in Hitler’s world of death camps and extermination groups—but without the possibility of evil, there is no true choice and no true freedom. In its basic definition, “Freedom” means the right to choose one’s own way to die. The servants of the dictators left that choice to their masters and fought and died for causes that even they themselves often found odious. The men and women of the free nations who fought World War II chose their own doom. If they could not destroy every evil, they destroyed the most vicious of their day. If it is part of the sadness of the human condition that they could not solve the problems of their children’s generation, it is part of the glory of it that they so resolutely faced their own.


In any specific action we always have the choice between the most audacious and the most careful solution. Some people think that the theory of war always advises the latter. That assumption is false. If the theory does advise anything, it is the nature of war to advise the most decisive, that is, the most audacious. Theory leaves it to the military leader, however, to act according to his own courage, according to the spirit of the enterprise and his self-confidence. Make your choice, therefore, according to this inner force; but never forget that no military leader has ever become great without audacity.
Die Grundsätze des Kriegführens
Classification of officers

I divide my officers into four groups. There are clever, diligent, stupid, and lazy officers. Usually two characteristics are combined. Some are clever and diligent — their place is the General Staff. The next lot are stupid and lazy — they make up 90 percent of every army and are suited to routine duties. Anyone who is both clever and lazy is qualified for the highest leadership duties, because he possesses the intellectual clarity and the composure necessary for difficult decisions. One must beware of anyone who is stupid and diligent — he must not be entrusted with any responsibility because he will always cause only mischief.
Chief of the Army High Command, Hammerstein-Equord.

And on the Prussian topic, remember that the Germany military was – by tradition – apolitical: simply the sword and shield of the state. And I think we all know how conservative and traditional Prussians are. They simply weren’t philosophers (as Liddell-Hart put it), and were unable to deal emotionally and intellectually with someone like Uncle Adolph. It made them better soldiers, perhaps, but lesser human beings. Maybe that’s the difference between being reared in a democracy vs. an autocracy: subservience of conscience to the state vs. subservience of the state to conscience.

On January 30, 1965, more than a million admirers of Sir Winston Churchill poured out into the streets to say their last grief-stricken good-byes to the great man who had saved all our lives and the civilization we cherish, and whose memory has become part of the heritage of the free world.

Churchill had died six days earlier from a stroke at the age of ninety. Crowds lined the streets in silent respect for Britain’s greatest wartime leader, as a gun carriage bearing his coffin left Westminster and the procession moved slowly through central London for his funeral service at St. Paul’s Cathedral. Then 321,360 mourners, including his widow Lady Clementine, his son Randolph, and his daughters Mary Soames and Lady Sarah Audley filed past his coffin as he lay in state for three days. Her Majesty the Queen attended with members of the royal family and the prime minister. Representatives from 112 nations came to the service. Then Churchill’s coffin was piped aboard a launch for a short trip on the Thames to Waterloo, where thousands more met the locomotive named after him. He was finally buried at the parish church of Bladon near Blenheim Palace where he had been born and where his extraordinary career began.

His successful leadership revealed what an extraordinarily talented man he was. And apart from his magnificent shepherding of the free world and the Allied forces in the Second World War, with his inputs into military strategies and tactics and wartime innovations, his skills as an author and an orator, he also possessed several unusual qualities for a politician. He considered the long-term consequences, whereas most politicians know that the electorate wants what it wants right away. That was his one mistake as a politician at the end of the war. And it came about because he was entirely genuine, sincere, and honest. That appealed to the British public, who trusted him and called him “Winnie,” with unusual warmth and affection for a politician. But the electorate are fickle. Even so, Winston Churchill is a hero for all time, against whom the memory of others fades.
Poor is the country that has no heroes, but beggared is
that people who, having them, forgets…


If we open ourselves up to the divine Life Force in its physical and spiritual manifestations we are all right, as individuals and as societies of individuals. If, on the contrary, we turn our backs on the God-made universe and insist on living in the home-made, verbal universe of fancies and ideals, imagining that we can improve on nature and make God in our own image, then we ruin our private lives, physically and spiritually, and create societies such as we live in today. Our habit of doing most of our living in a home-made world of words, fancies, and illusions is so deeply ingrained that it requires hard work with special techniques to “get back to where we have always been”—that is to say, to the given reality of Nature and Grace, to things as they really are, in themselves, and quoad nos, in relation to our egos.

World War II Myths, Misconceptions and Surprises


If you can’t identify an opposing force, fire a few rounds in their direction.

If they respond with coordinated rifle fire, they’re British.

If they respond with a barrage of machine gun fire, they’re German.

If they do nothing, and ten minutes later you’re killed in an air strike, they were Americans.


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32 thoughts on “About

  1. Hi, first of all excellent website. I would like to know what is the name or origin of the (blue) sail ship on your header I would greatly appreciate it. thanks

    Liked by 1 person

  2. The information on the Halifax bomber may have to be amended.
    Postwar the type had a pannier carrier fitted to carry 8,000 lb. This wa the the C.VIII version.
    It did not carry the 4,000lb cookie. Additional bomb bay restriction was caused by the Radome enclosing the H2S terrain mapping radar. The Lancaster Mark IV had the bomb designed for the larger bombs. Only 10% of earlier types could carry the 8,000lb cookie. The Lancaster bomb bay doors were subjected to a major redesign and the Halifax being a continual headache to fit new equipment. The Stirling did carry the 4,000lb cookie.


  3. Solving problems with later marks
    While Bomber Command planners continued to try to integrate the poor performance of the early Halifaxes into their calculations for the nightly raids, Handley Page designers were still working hard at trying to eliminate or at least reduce the type’s weaknesses. As noted previously, from December 1941 the front and mid-upper turrets had been removed and a new nose fairing fitted under Mod. 398, saving 1,500lb in weight, resulting in the Halifax Mk II Series 1 (Special); the triple fuel jettison pipes were also removed from beneath each wing.
    In August 1942 a more refined transparent nose was produced under Mod. 452. Approved in December ’42, aircraft so fitted became Mk II Series 1a versions and somewhat defeating the whole idea of the change, initial aircraft received a four-gun Boulton Paul dorsal turret. Up went the weight again to 60,000lb and in this configuration the Series 1a could only take around 2,000lb of bombs to Berlin. The slender bomb bay was not suited to the larger weapons being introduced so to accommodate the later 4,000lb `Cookie’, new enlarged doors were designed, while for the 8,000lb `Super Cookie’ (two 4,000lb explosive cylinders bolted together), an enlarged fairing was developed to encase the weapon. The first of these monsters was dropped from a 76 Sqn Halifax during an attack on Essen on April 10/11, 1942; the result is unknown!


  4. Interesting information indeed. I have a collection of letters, one of the letter writers being Hitler s premier multilingual warrior spy Hauptmann Siegfried Grabert. I have made a 5 minute youtube with interesting information on the contents of three out of a total of around forty letters. Kindly google videos Siegfried Grabert – The Letters – YouTube

    Thanks for sharing
    From Malta


  5. Dear Sir / Ma’am,

    I’m writing to you on behalf of a Delhi based Production House, AIM Television . We are making a Documentary on Kashmir for Times Network. With regards to that, I would like to take the Non- Exclusive,Global, All Media Rights in Perpetuity for the Photograph / image which has been Published on Weapon and warfare website on 07.08.2015 date.
    Kindly let me know the right process of acquiring it. I would really appreciate if could you initiate this process asap.

    Link is attached for your reference :- https://weaponsandwarfare.com/2015/08/07/sikh-wars-1845-1846-1848-1849/

    Apoorva Choudhary


  6. Hi,

    I love the site. However sometimes I can find only partial articles like this one “Kursk First Day Northern Front.

    I assume there’s a second day? If yes, why isn’t there a link at the bottom of the article or why doesn’t it show up in the search? This is the case for many of your excellent articles that are incomplete by themselves. Please advise!


    Thanks a lot


  7. Thank you for writing such detailed and well researched articles. I’ve spent hours here reading your posts.

    Also, thanks for approving me as a reader of your blog, I came back one day and noted it was marked private. Anyway, thanks again it is one of those website historical treasures that I routinely visit.


  8. I want to thank you for the article on the Avro Manchester. I hope I didn’t steal from you but it certainly was part of my background information on R5795.


  9. Really a fantastic blog. I hope you can help me with a question about some of your illustrations. I am talking about the art with italian explanations around it.
    For example these:


    Arte they from the same book or a series of magazines? I tried to find informations about them but failed. I hope there is a chance you can name me the source!


  10. do you have any information of Hun warfare, specifically as Roman , allies or mercenaries, not sure how they would be classified


  11. I enjoy reading this site very much, I can sometimes spend a few hours clicking on the articles and the follow-on links.

    But I have always wondered – who are the authors, and have they published anything in print or on line elsewhere?


  12. Where do you get your information? I am doing a uni project and thought that this was a great site!


  13. Hi,

    Sory, I’m not convinced by the article about the wss ( to much british/protestant sided and very far from the truth as concern Louis XIV who did not “fall in bigotry” at the end of his life but simply returned to the normal religious life of a king of France.
    (remember Saint Louis). Here is an excellent book on tha question : “The roi Soleil et DDieu” (The Sun king and God).

    You should read John Lynn ‘s greats books. This one understand well the French side of those events because he came here and made the work to read the french sources which are now freely accessible from the web on the Gallica web site for exemple.

    But I’m convinced your other articles are very interesting and I will read some.

    Only on the “wars of Louis XIV” ( They are even more the William III ‘s wars in fact), I found this false view of the truth in anglo saxon military history.

    Kind regards

    Jean-Michel from France


  14. Great website. I stumbled across the page on Canadian Forces at Valenciennes and Mons 1918.

    The barrage map show is a scan that I made of my grandfathers map who was the officer in charge of “D” Battery mentioned in the text below the map.


    Regarding the Marly cemetery, on November 2nd the armoured car and cyclist patrol at first advanced past the cemetery, and after engaging a flanking machine gun nest came under machine gun fire from behind originating from the Marly cemetery. The patrol fell back to the cemetery and “D” battery was called up and together cleared the cemetery.

    My grandfather made it to the outskirts of Estreux where on Nov 4th he was wounded by gunfire and put out of the fight.

    80 years after the events of that day, and on the other side of the world, I met a lovely woman who is now my wife. She is from the area and that same graveyard in Marly contains many generations of her family.


  15. I’m very impressed with your website. It is very well done and a treasure trove of fascinating information. I was curious about the identification (Make model & nationality) of the aircraft with twin radial engines in the top left image on your cover photo collection.


  16. Breda Ba.88 Lince
    The Breda Ba.88 Lince (“Lynx”) was a ground-attack aircraft used by the Italian Regia Aeronautica during World War II. Its streamlined design and retractable undercarriage were advanced for the time, and after its debut in 1937 the aircraft established several world speed records. However, when military equipment was installed on production examples, problems of instability developed and the aeroplane’s general performance deteriorated. Eventually its operational career was cut short, and the remaining Ba.88 airframes were used as fixed installations on airfields to mislead enemy reconnaissance. It represented, perhaps, the most remarkable failure of any operational aircraft to see service in World War II.


  17. Pingback: Here is the central plank of reason as to why Germany could be defeated in WW2 – © blogfactory

  18. Hi great post on Philip of Macedon, can I have some information who i can credit it as i would like to refer to it. many thanks Jolan


  19. Congratulations on this page. Incredibly rich … Whatever I was looking for, several articles came up. I will be here often if God helps me with this.
    a Hun


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