Strategy

Japan at Bay

Fortification Japan Strategy 25 Min Read

No one—and especially not the members of Japanese Imperial General Headquarters or the United States Joint Chiefs of Staff—expected Okinawa to be the last battle of World War II. Why the surprise? The Joint Chiefs, having woefully underestimated enemy striking power at the beginning of the Pacific War, had just as grievously exaggerated it at the end. Actually, as some…

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Strategy 22 Min Read

THE SPACE DOMAIN

Russia’s 14Ts033 Nudol ASAT capable In 2019, a series of announcements highlighted the growing importance of space for national security and defence. At its November 2019 foreign-ministers’ meeting in Belgium, NATO declared space an `operational domain’ for the Alliance, three months after the United States activated US Space Command as…

SpecForce Strategy 21 Min Read

‘Second Front Now’

THE BRITISH ARMY IN THE UNITED KINGDOM 1939-45 (H 18957) Men of No. 4 Commando after returning from a raid on the French coast near Boulogne, 22 April 1942. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205198312 Within hours of having delivered himself of the British determination to stand by all who…

Armies Soviet Strategy 36 Min Read

Allied Intervention in the Russian Civil War I

In classical Stalinist historiography, the entire Russian Civil War was reduced to the Red Army’s successful repulsion of the “three Entente campaigns,” in which the White and other nationalist armies (Poles, Balts, Ukrainians, etc.) were merely puppets of the Allied leaders. That was a gross exaggeration—indeed, there is a case…

Armies Strategy 25 Min Read

Allied Intervention in the Russian Civil War II

POLISH LEGION. Chiefly active in Siberia during the “Russian” Civil Wars, but also a participant in the Soviet–Polish War, this force had its origins in the formation at Samara, from 1 July 1918, of a Polish volunteer unit (formally, the 5th Polish Rifle Division) under Walerian Czuma (1890–1962), a veteran…

Strategy 28 Min Read

AFTER THE SURGE

(Summer 2008) As the surge ended in mid-2008, with the last of the five additional combat brigades heading home, Baghdad felt distinctly better. Kebab stands and coffee shops had reopened across the city, and many ordinary Iraqis felt safe enough to venture out of their homes at night, in part…

Strategy 17 Min Read

“Ernie King’s beloved ocean”

In 1921 a Marine staff officer by the name of Major Earl “Pete” Ellis made an ominous forecast: the assignment of Germany’s former island colonies in the Central Pacific to Japan under the League of Nations mandate would one day make war in the Pacific inevitable. Over two decades later…

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Lend-Lease to the USSR

American Lend-Lease supplies to the USSR 1941–45. Soviet historiography is mocked in the West, where…

TURKISH EXPECTATIONS OF THE ALLIED LANDINGS

The bombardment of the Turkish forts. Original illustration published by H W Wilson, British journalist…

The Western Front: Lions Led by Donkeys?

Blackadder Goes Forth is the fourth and final series of the BBC sitcom Blackadder, written…

New Strategies of the Third Century Roman Empire I

‘Posterity, which experienced the fatal effects of his maxims and example, justly considered as the…