Leipzig: Battle of the Nations

Austria Battle France Germany Prussia Russia Strategy Wars 43 Min Read

Johann Peter Krafft (1780-1856)-‘victory declaration after the battle of Leipzig, 1813’-oil on canvas-1813   Berlin-Deutsches Historiches Museum. The Battle of Leipzig, also known as the Battle of the Nations, was fought between Napoleon and the three Allied armies that had been approaching the city for several days: the Army of Bohemia (Feldmarschall Karl Philipp Fürst zu Schwarzenberg), the Army of Silesia


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British Strategy 10 Min Read

The Julius Caesar Plan

A camouflaged defensive position constructed in the north wall of Pevensey Castle, East Sussex, during the Second World War. One report states: ‘At the time of the construction of the defence works in the walls of Pevensey Castle, from late July 1940 through August and September, the infantry regiment at

Germany Naval History Strategy 45 Min Read

The U-boat War, the Baltic Sea, and Norway I

U-3008 (Type XXI U-Boat) at Wilhelmshaven, June 1945. Note the two type IX submarines to its left. U-3008 was one of only two type XXIs to make a wartime patrol The most likely reason why Hitler chose to defend Courland and other bridgeheads along the Baltic concerns the Atlantic Ocean

Germany Naval History Strategy 32 Min Read

The U-boat War, the Baltic Sea, and Norway II

A Beriev MBR-2 soviet floatplane bombing a German cargo ship. The Soviet Baltic Fleet Dönitz’s greatest fear was that the Soviet fleet would sail from Kronstadt into the Baltic and wreak havoc in U-boat testing and training areas. Until the fall of 1944 he could point to the importance of

Strategy 37 Min Read


The Falaise Pocket All the senior German commanders were fully aware of the futility of renewing the offensive toward Avranches and of the mortal danger facing Seventh Army and Panzer Group Eberbach. They were equally aware of the pointlessness, even personal danger, of suggesting retreat to the Führer. Von Kluge

Strategy 44 Min Read


First Canadian Army: Lieutenant General Crerar. Like Operation Bluecoat, Totalize achieved more than its predecessors in Normandy. II Canadian Corps drove a salient up to 15 km (9 miles) deep and 8 km (5 miles) wide into the German defense. In doing so, it reduced a fresh infantry division to

Strategy 39 Min Read


Patton displayed greater operational vision than his army group commander. He was quick to recognize the error of committing too strong a force to Brittany in pursuit of the outdated Overlord plan. Instead, he (like Montgomery) envisaged a long envelopment to destroy the enemy on the Seine. He believed in

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Lend-Lease to the USSR

American Lend-Lease supplies to the USSR 1941–45. Soviet historiography is mocked in the West, where

The Western Front: Lions Led by Donkeys?

Blackadder Goes Forth is the fourth and final series of the BBC sitcom Blackadder, written

New Strategies of the Third Century Roman Empire I

‘Posterity, which experienced the fatal effects of his maxims and example, justly considered as the

“Ernie King’s beloved ocean”

In 1921 a Marine staff officer by the name of Major Earl “Pete” Ellis made