Cortes’ March to Tenochtitlan II

History Spain 11 Min Read

Digital reconstruction of Tenochtitlan and its environs JULY 1, 1519. Once more back in Villa Rica, Cortés hastens its fortification and is reinforced by the arrival of a single caravel from Santiago de Cuba under Francisco de Saucedo or Salceda, bearing 60 more soldiers and nine horses. More importantly, this officer brings word that Velazquez has now been authorized from


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France History Spain 18 Min Read

The Change of Dynasty – Bourbon Spain

Louis XIV presents his grandson, the King of Spain to the Court and to the Spanish Ambassador. The dichotomy of Castile-Aragon could not be summarily removed by the stroke of a pen – not even the pen of a Bourbon. The fall of Oropesa in 1691 left Spain without an

Battle British France Spain 20 Min Read


42nd Highlanders the Black Watch at the Battle of Corunna on 16th January 1809 in the Peninsular War: picture by Harry Payne The positions of the armies at Corunna. The British are in red and the French in blue. Despite their predicament, the British had two factors in their favour.

British Spain 13 Min Read


12 May 1809 Sir Arthur Wellesley was a distinctly odd man; fastidious, snooty and intelligent all at once. He was also deeply ambitious and powered by intolerance towards others. He could hardly have been more different temperamentally in his buttoned-up style, to the mercurial, emotional Nelson or to the excitable,

Fortification Siege Spain 26 Min Read

The Great Inca Rebellion – The Siege of Cuzco I

As always, the Spaniards’ first reaction to a disturbance with the Indians was to try to seize the initiative. Hernando sent his brother Juan with seventy cavalrymen – virtually every horse then in Cuzco – to disperse the Indians in the Yucay valley. While riding across the plateau of rolling

Fortification Siege Spain 27 Min Read

The Great Inca Rebellion – The Siege of Cuzco II

Manco Inca and other 3 soldiers with Spanish weapons during the rebellion. The beleaguered Spaniards now decided that their immediate survival depended on the recapture of the fortress on the cliff above them. According to Murua, Manco’s relative and rival Pascac, who had sided with the Spaniards, gave advice about

AFV Artillery Spain Weapons 25 Min Read

Antitank Warfare in the Spanish Civil War

German Artillerymen of the Condor Legion prepare to fire a Flak 18 88mm cannon onto Republican lines at the Battle of Amposta during the Spanish Civil War; Catalonia, Autumn 1938. Italian 47mm M-35 antitank guns were supplied for the use of the Italian Volunteer Corps only. Spanish troops with a

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Elizabeth towards War I

European matchlock musketeers of the Elizabethan period. By the early 1570s the Puritans had grown

Uniforms of Italian Wars (1494-1559)

A series of sharp but also intermittent conflicts broke out over control of Italy at

Dogs of the Conquistadors

The Spaniards began using dogs at least by the 1260s, as King Jaume I of


Tenochtitlán, June 30, 1521 One of the central episodes of the 1520s was, of course,