Spain 8 Min Read

Rising out of a succession dispute between two BOURBON pretenders, Carlism became a social philosophy and a political movement that endured in Spain for more than a century. It derived its name from Don Carlos (1788–1855), younger son of CHARLES IV. His status as heir apparent was undercut in 1830 when his elder brother, FERDINAND VII, put aside the Salic


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Battle Medieval Spain 9 Min Read


Book Link Development of the Battle of Salado 30 October 1340 Many of the battles fought between Islam and Christianity have been hailed as the decisive encounter between the two religions. Few of them can have been more decisive than the crushing defeat of the wealthy emir of Marinid Morocco,

Spain Wars 13 Min Read

The history of the [Spanish] Army of Flanders and the Eighty Years War. Part I

By Fernando González de León It appears that there were two distinct periods or eras in the history of the Army of Flanders and the Eighty Years War. The first one lasted roughly from 1567 to the signing of the Twelve Years Truce in 1609. This first Army of Flanders

Spain Wars 9 Min Read

The history of the [Spanish] Army of Flanders and the Eighty Years War. Part II

BATTLE OF ROCROI, 19 MAY 1643 Following successful cavalry charges by Isembourg on the Spanish right and Conde on the French right, the latter won the battle by keeping his horsemen in check, riding across the rear of the Spanish infantry, and attacking Isembourg’s cavalry from behind. Once the Spanish

France Siege Spain 15 Min Read

Siege of Saigon (March 1860–February 1861)

Capture of Saigon by Charles Rigault de Genouilly on 17 February 1859, painted by Antoine Morel-Fatio. The 11-month siege of Saigon (today Ho Chi Minh City) in Vietnam during March 1860–February 1861 by Vietnamese against the French and Spanish occurred during the long French effort to secure control of Indochina.

Spain Warship 6 Min Read

Santa Ana (1784)

Santa Ana was a three-masted first-rate, with three decks of guns: the prototype for seven other ships built during the 1780s at Spanish and Cuban yards. Santa Ana 1784 by San Martín – Artesanía Latina – Scale 1:84 A first-rate of 112 guns, Santa Ana was the first of a

Siege Spain 14 Min Read

Siege of the Alcázar at Toledo (July 21–September 27, 1936)

On July 17, 1936, with leaders of the Popular Front government of Spain learning of their plans, rightist plotters in the army were forced prematurely to begin their effort to seize power in what became the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939). An important battle early in the conflict was the siege

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Elizabeth towards War I

European matchlock musketeers of the Elizabethan period. By the early 1570s the Puritans had grown

Uniforms of Italian Wars (1494-1559)

A series of sharp but also intermittent conflicts broke out over control of Italy at

Elizabeth towards War II

What is often depicted as the apotheosis of the Elizabethan Age, the turning point at

Sertorian War (80-72 B. C. E.)

Sertorius was a disaffected Roman who fought successfully against Sulla and Pompey. He was a