Biography 21 Min Read

BATTLE OF STONES RIVER, DECEMBER 31, 1862–JANUARY 2, 1863 Having declined command of the Army of the Ohio when it had been offered him the first time, Thomas was angry at being passed over the second time. This fact said much about his character and sense of justice. Buell was his senior, and so he considered it wrong—disloyal and unseemly—to


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Biography 18 Min Read

John Singleton Mosby

Born December 6, 1833 Powhatan County, Virginia Died May 30, 1916 Washington, D.C. Confederate guerrilla leader Tormented Union forces in northern Virginia from 1863 to 1865 as commander of “Mosbís Rangers” During the course of the Civil War, groups of armed raiders known as “guerrillas” or “rangers” sprouted up all

Battle Biography Germany Ottoman Poland Russia 6 Min Read

Augustus II of Poland (1670-1733)

“Friedrich Augustus. Elector of Saxony (1694-1733); king of Poland (1697-1704; 1709-1733).” A member of the Wettin dynasty and an elector of the Holy Roman Empire (Saxony), Augustus was elected king of Poland in 1697, after deeming that Warsaw was worth a Mass, converting to Catholicism, and agreeing to permit extraordinary

Austria Biography 6 Min Read

Johann Joseph Wenzel Graf Radetzky von Radetz, (1766–1858)

Chief of the general staff of the Austrian armies against Napoleon and commanding general of Austrian forces during the revolution of 1848 in Italy. In his youth, Radetzky proved his bravery as a soldier; he was wounded numerous times, and he was noted for his intelligence and initiative. As a

Biography Germany Naval 60 Min Read

Jürgen Oesten and the End of the U-boats

Jürgen Oesten Jürgen Oesten, like so many of his comrades, was approaching the end of a war that Germany was bound to lose, and everything in his life was going to change again. Oesten brought U-861 into the harbor of Trondheim, Norway, on 19 April 1945, after a three-month passage

Biography Ottoman Russia 10 Min Read

Fedor Mateyevitch Apraxin, (1661-1728)

Russian admiral. Along with Peter I, Apraxin was the founder of the modern Russian Navy. In 1700 Peter appointed Apraxin governor of Azov, where he was ordered to build and sustain a Black Sea fleet for operations against the Ottoman Empire. He built blue-water ships and river boats and barges,

Battle Biography Naval 6 Min Read

Maarten van Tromp, (1598-1653)

Dutch admiral. While at sea with his father on a Vereenigde Oostindische Compaagnie (VOC) ship to India, he was taken prisoner by an English pirate and made to serve as a cabin boy for two years. He saw his first naval action in 1617 against the Barbary corsairs. He signed

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