The GAZ `Tigr’ or `Tiger’ is a Russian 4×4, All-Terrain Infantry Mobility Vehicle manufactured by GAZ, first delivered to the Soviet Army in 2006. Primarily used by the Russian Federation’s armed forces, it is also used by numerous other countries. The Tiger was first shown at the IDEX exhibition in 2001, and production started in 2004 with ninety-six vehicles. The Russian Army officially adopted the GAZ- 2975 into service at the end of 2006 and was then officially manufactured in 2007. China co-produced the GAZ Tiger with Russia after it initially refused to grant them a full license. 110 Tigers were delivered from 2008-2010 and are in service with the Chinese Public Security Police. Some saw use publicly in the 2008 Beijing Olympics and in the 2009 Xinjiang riots. Five Tigers, fully assembled, were delivered with five more in kit form for assembly while 100 were assembled in China under Beijing Yanjing Motor Company. Yanjing Motor-made vehicles are known as YJ2080C and YJ2081C, the difference with the engine installed and the weight.
During the 2010 Interpolitex exhibition, MIC presented the upgraded version of GAZ Tiger-the VPK-233114 Tiger-M-with a new YaMZ-534 diesel engine, additional armour and an NBC protection system. This new GAZ Tiger-M entered service with the Russian army during the irst half of the 2013. Mass production and the export version have already been launched with a 205hp engine. Tiger armoured cars were reported to be among the AFV’s deployed by Russia in the Crimean crisis. They seemed to belong to the Russian Naval Infantry, but that combat arm had not been previously identified as a Tiger user, suggesting that the examples spotted near Sevastopol on the night of February 28, 2014, were vehicles transferred or on loan from their primary military user, the Russian Army. In early March 2015, OSCE inspectors spotted `a camoulaged GAZ Tiger-type armoured personnel carrier guarding a DPR Checkpoint, close to the village Shyrokyne east of Mariupol, and since 2015, Tiger vehicles have been used by the Syrian Army in fight with opposition and extremist groups.
In January 2017, Tiger-Ms entered service with the Russian Army mounting the Arbalet- DM remote weapon station (RWS). This can hold a Kord 12. mm machine gun carrying 150 rounds of ammunition or a PKTM 7.62mm machine gun carrying 250 rounds. The module has TV and thermal imaging cameras allowing target identification out to 2.5km and 1.5km respectively, an integral laser rangefinder, and the ability to lock on and track targets. The vehicle was designed to transport troops and various equipment quickly on road and of-road. It has a chassis frame construction, with a traditional layout of front engine, middle crew compartment, and rear cargo area. Standard features include: power steering, independent all- wheel torsion suspension with hydraulic shock absorbers and stabiliser bars, a transfer case with a locking centre differential, limited slip differentials, two-speed transfer case, automatic tire inflation, engine block heater, and electric winch. The GAZ-233001 has optional air conditioning, stereo, electric windows, and an anti-lock braking system. Armoured versions of the Tiger feature 5mm or 7mm for the SPM-2, heat-treated and stress-relieved armour plates. The Tiger can also carry a half ton of cargo. In 2011, the Tula Instrument Design Bureau demonstrated an upgraded Kornet-EM anti-tank missile system. Two such units were mounted on a modified chassis of the SPM-2 Tiger. The machine is equipped with two retractable launchers for eight missiles and gunnery equipment (remote weapons control with screens to display images from the sighting systems), as well as eight additional missiles. Designed for performance in mountain, arctic, and desert environments, the Tiger is capable of operating at ambient temperatures ranging from -14-50 °C (7-122 °F).