The S-400 Triumph SA-21 is a long range surface-to-air missile systems produced by Almaz-Antey. The S-400 Trumph is intended to engage, ECM, radar-picket, director area, reconnaissance, strategic and tactical aircraft, tactical and theatre ballistic missiles, medium-range ballistic missiles and other current and future air attack assets at a maximum range of 400 km, and a altitude of up to 30 km. The S-400 Triumph can also intended Tomahawk cruise missiles and other types of missiles, including precision-guided ones, as well as AWACS aircraft, at ranges of up to 400 km. It can also detect stealth aircraft and other targets at all altitudes of their combat employment and at maximum ranges. This air defense missile system can simultaneously engage 36 targets. Work of the development of the S-400 Triumph air defense missile system is a visible embodiment of cooperation among weapons developers. Besides the Almaz Central Design Bureau, these include leading enterprises of the Russian Defence industry, such as the Fakel Machine-Building Design Bureau, the Novosibirsk Research Institute of Measuring Instruments, the St- Petersburg Special Machine-Building Design Bureau, and a number of others. A regular S-400 battalion reportedly consists of at least eight launchers with 32 missiles and a mobile command post. The principal distinctions between the S-400 and its predecessor lie in further refinements to the radar and software, and the addition of four new missile types in addition to the legacy 48N6E/48N6E2 used in the S-300PMU2 Favorit. The S-400 entered service with the Russian Armed Forces on April 28, 2007, replacing the S-300 air defense system. As of September 2008, Russia has two systems already in active duty. The Russian Army plans call for the fielding of 18 battalions by 2020 as the backbone of its surface-to-air missile capabilities. Belarus is set to become the first export customer. In April 2009 during IDEF exhibition in Istanbul Rosoboronexport released that the Turkish government had expressed strong interest in the buy of S-400 air defense systems.
S-400 M: export version of S-400
Missile launcher unit
One SPU launcher had four missile containers; each container could house one 48N6E or four 9M96 surface-to-air missiles. The S-400 Triumph can be used with a semi-mobile package of towed trailer mounted radars and missile. The S-400 Triumph with the truck 6×6 BAZ-64022 is a semi-trailer arrangement, with the forward booms splayed when deployed as stabilisers.
The S-400 Triumph uses the 9M96E and 9M96E2 missiles. The S-400 Triumph can also use the 48N6E missile of the S-300 PMU-1 system and 48N6E2 missiles of the S-300 PMU-2 Favorit system. The 48N6E missile was successfully test-fired the 12 February 1999. The possibility of using AD missiles with various effective ranges ensures the system modular capability that makes it possible to set up layered air defense and non-strategic anti-missiles defense systems. The S-400 missile has a maximum range of 400 km and can hit all air targets wit high accuracy.
The trailer of the system S-400 Triumph is tractor drawn by the Russian truck 6×6 BAZ-64022, but the S-400 can be also mounted to the truck Almaz 5P90SE or Almaz 5P90TMU.
Command and control vehicles
The S-400 Triumph system command and control assets and AD missiles can cooperate with various automated control systems and radar facilities. Along with the new AD missiles the system can uses the S-300 PMU AD missiles. The S-400 Triumph uses the new Engagement Radar System 92N2E Grave Stone carried by a new 8 x 8 MZKT-7930 vehicle, the battery acquisition radar 96L6 Cheese Board also carried by a 8×8 truck MZKT-7930. new 3D phased array acquisition radar is employed, the 91N6E (NATO Code Big Bird) derived from the 64N6E2, and the 40V6M/MD mast is an available option.
The 55K6E command post is employed, carried by an 8 x 8 Ural 532301 truck.The command post is used to control air space surveillance data from each individual launcher vehicle. It controls and monitors long-range surveillance radar, tracks airborne threats, prioritises the threats, and coordinates all batteries.
Optional acquisition radars cited for the S-400 include the 59N6 Protivnik GE and 67N6 Gamma DE in the L-band, but also the 1L119 Nebo SVU in the VHF band. The Nebo SVU has a claimed capability against stealth aircraft. In addition to further acquisition radar types, the S-400 has been trialled with the Topaz Kolchuga M, KRTP-91 Tamara / Trash Can, and 85V6 Orion / Vega emitter locating systems, the aim being to engage emitting targets without emitting from the acquisition radars, or if the acquisition radars have been jammed. In June, 2008, the manufacturer diclosed the integration of the 1RL220VE, 1L222 and 86V6 Orion emitter locating systems with the S-400.