Mediterranean cargo ship – Ninth Century AD.

Vessels of this type plied the waters of the Mediterranean around the ninth century AD. Although the basic hull was that of the old Roman cargo ship, its look above the freeboard was very different.

The steering oars were still brought within an extension of the upper hull; however, the stern and prow were far simpler, and the bowsprint gone completely. The ship’s mast, stayed by shrouds, had a forward tilt to accommodate the double-sparred yard of a lateen sail, a feature probably copied from Arab vessels. Lateen sails could be trimmed much closer to the wind.
Length: 24.4m (80ft)
Beam: 7.6m (25ft)
Depth: 2.7m (9ft)
Displacement: not known
Rigging: single mast stayed laterally; lateen rig
Complement: 5-8
Main routes: trans-Mediterranean, Atlantic coast of Europe
Cargo: wine, grain, wood, hides, oil