The Bronze Age and Classical Era Technology

Roman artillery ca. 69 AD

The 13 kg stone thrower could throw it’s projectile with a speed of 70 meters per second, that’s it, an energy of 32,000 joules. That would mean that if the speed was the same for larger and smaller projectiles a 80 kg stone projector would have the power of 200,000 joules (and not 100,000 joules as I previously) of energy. A small 6.6 kg stone projector would have 16,200 joules of power.


It was the first flamethrower in history and was first used by the Boeotians in the Peloponnesian war for the combustion of the Dilion walls. It consisted of a scooped out iron-bound beam (ripped at length and reconnected) that had a bellow at the user’s end and a cauldron hung with chains at the other end. A bent pipe from the airtight orifice of the beam went down into the cauldron which contained lit coal, sulphur and pitch (tar). With the operation of the bellow, enormous flames were created that burned the wooden walls and removed their defenders. Later it was used for the offence of stone fortifications causing cracks in the stones because of the high temperature and the parallel infusion of vinegar, urine or other erosive substances in them.
It was first used according to Stravon in Kabeira from the king of Pontos, Mithridatis VI
SOURCES: “Thucydides, Historiae, IV”



Field of Glory Renaissance




Field of Glory: Renaissance is designed in an approachable and easy to learn manner to allow players to concentrate on realistic deployments and battlefield tactics of the early modern era. The book captures the atmosphere of battles, ranging from the Italian Wars of the early sixteenth century through the conflicts of the standing armies of the end of the seventeenth century, not only in Europe but around the world.

This period witnessed the dominance of massed pike formations on the open battlefield at the outset giving way to mixed formations of pike and shot until the widespread adoption of the socket bayonet made the pikeman virtually obsolete. After its near demise in western Europe in the late medieval ages, cavalry once again became a powerful force in battle and the introduction of the pistol led to the adoption and evolution of new tactics.